uG1.1.2 Dr. Grygier's edited sources for his manuscript, by Dr. Walaszek, in English.

The Ministry of the State of Ducal Prussia (Etats Ministerium d. Herzogtum Preussen).

This archival collection is kept now in the State Archives in Olsztyn and the Geheime Staatsarchiv Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin - Dahlem (ca. 98% of records). Particularly useful were the documents concerning the events in Ducal Prussia in l730-l766. In our study we analyzed only the records from the Olsztyn Archives, the job being extremely hard, for there are no personal, subject or geographical indexes. The most common system was the geographical arrangement of records. This was some help in showing the geographical distribution of the Dressels.

In the archival collection some traces of the registration of noble families in East Prussia can be found. The collection consists mostly of economic records on the basis of which one can deduce the situation the Dressels met. The Etats-Ministerium records may be supplemented by the series of the Prussian Secret Archives in Berlin collected in the so-called Ostpreussisches Felianten and Herzogliche Briefarchiv.



The War-Treasury Department in Königsberg (Kriegs-und Domanen Kammer in Konigsberg) with the documents referring to the migration of the Salzburg citizens (Salzburger) to Ducal Prussia. The records are of primary importance, for they reveal the endeavors of the Prussian authorities to demand compensation for the exiled citizens of the Duchy of Salzburg. The settlement was supervised by the War-Treasury Departments. The confiscated properties and claims of the Salzburg Protestants were to be refunded by the Prussian authorities. In the case of the Dressels particularly significant was the group of documents II/2a-l4, also subdivided into the archival collections of Olsztyn and Berlin.



The Deposit records (Gumbinner Salzburger Anstalt).

Kept in Königsberg till l939, they are now in Olsztyn. The group consists of two series: the so-called EXAMINA and RECHNUNGSBUECHERN. EXAMINA is the most important archival source for genealogical studies of the Salzburg emigrants. It comprises protocols of the examinations of the emigrants from Königsberg. They were written after oral statements which because of the poor command of the Saxon dialects frequently led to the distortion of names. In their turn, Rechnungsbuechern (accountant's books) were kept because they contained the emigrants' documents, which presented the information about the property and claims left in Salzburg.



The records of the Estates of Ducal Prussia, East Prussia, and Lithuania.

They consist of the archival materials which belonged to the former Historical Archives of the Provincial Council in Königsberg (Historisches Archiv der Provinzial-Vorwalttung in Königsberg). The following materials kept in Olsztyn have been analyzed in view of the present study:

- The files of the general regional councils of Ducal Prussia, which enable one to reconstruct the political and economic situation of Prussia and evaluate the settlement of the Salzburg emigrants. They cover the period till l808.

- The files of social welfare of Ducal Prussia.

- The estate files from l808-l824. The general documents. The most important are the records of the Estate Committee of the Estates of East Prussia and Lithuania (Commite der Standa des Ostpreussen und Lithauen). The Committee preserved the estate self-government (gentry, burghers, and peasants) of Prussia.

- The estate files concerning settlement, financial aid, and agrarian reform. They contain documents of the settlers' families and financial records related to the enfranchisement.

- The estate files concerning agricultural relations.

- The estate files concerning the finances of the provincial self-government, fiscal system and agricultural industry.

- The estate files concerning the army.

- The estate files concerning the organization of the estate bonds and changes of the political system.

- The files of the General Regional Council of the Estates of East Prussia from l824-l877 and l878 and l933.

- The personal files of the East Prussian self-government officials.

- The files of homages paid to the throne.

- The files concerning education and art in the province.

- The files of the self-government property.




The records of the Olsztyn notariate (Regierung Allenstein)

This is the fundamental collection of documents for the genealogical studies on the Dressels. Presented are merely the main groups and series of the Notariate records, whereas the detailed information and signatures of the documents are referred to in footnotes.

Although established only in l905, the Notariate contains the documents dating back to l734, which were taken over from the War-Treasury Department in Königsberg, the War-Treasury Department in Gabin, the Königsberg Notariate (Regierung Königsberg), and the Gabin Notariate (Regierung Gumbinnen). The division of the archival collection of the Olsztyn Notariate is as follows: The Department I of the Interior Affairs with its activity focused on the state authorities, defense of the country, policy (control over foreigners, registration of citizens, passports), Jewish settlement (these records are of primary importance because of the trade relations of the Dressels from the Kingdom of Poland with the Jewish merchants). The Department II of Religious Denominations and Education was also significant for a considerable part of the Dressels were Protestants; moreover, the Protestant parish at Wielbark was one of the most numerous in the Southern part of East Prussia. The files of the Department III of Taxes, Estates, and Forests contain tax-lists defining the families' financial position. The documents also elucidate the undertaken economic reforms, the relations between the guild system and the incipient industrial laissez-faire and liberalism. This is of significance here, for the majority of the Dressels were involved in textile industry and metallurgy.



The records of the district starosties (Landraturen)

The above institutions were charged with all the tasks of the state administration, that is the instructions of the central administration, the strictly self-government tasks carried out by the state administration, the self-government tasks carried out by the self-government organs of a district (the so-called district departments - Kreissausschuse). Kept in the State Archives in Olsztyn, the records have the following structure: the documents of the strictly state administration (i.e. defense of the country, police, health service, veterinary service, industry and craftsmanship, education, construction service, organization of road system); the documents of the District Department (Kreisausschussburo) and district self-government (care of the families, food and economic office); the documents related to the control over self-government councils and registration offices; the documents related to the self-governmental activity (personal, financial, tax matters, welfare system, care of invalids and the youth, hospital system, power industry, transport service, land melioration).



The records of the estate-rental offices (Domanen-Rent Amter)

Around 500 various archival sets of particular estate-local offices have been preserved in the State Archives in Olsztyn. Their significance lies in the fact that they come from the l3th to the second half of the 20th century. The offices also functioned as local courts keeping their registers (Amtsbucher), where the course of hearing and sentences in the criminal and civil cases were written down. Of particular importance for our studies in the Dressel family is the Domanen Rent Amt set in Prabuty (Riesenburg).



The records of the ironworks at Wadolek (Eisenhutennenwerk in Woondollek).

Several members of the Dressel family were associated with the state ironworks at Wadolek. The set of the documents provides us with the insight into the process of the ironworks construction and the recruitment of ironmasters from older ironworks (Saxon and Silesian). The records supplement the files of the Olsztyn Notariate concerning the organization of the ironworks. In spite of the extensive search no personal letters or documents signed by any of the Dressels have been found. It may be assumed, however, that they were literate, for a thorough education was required in the case of the ironmaster's profession. The rules in this respect were very strict. The Dressels may be thought to be educated on the grounds of the regulations and programs of that record set.



The records of the municipal authorities (Magistraten)

They illustrate the transformation of the town system from the institutions of "commisariats" (commissari lock) to those of the territorial self-government (Selbstvervaltung). This greatly contributed to the migration to the Kingdom of Poland. There are files of several towns in the Archives of Olsztyn.



The records of the local courts (Amtsgerichten)

Although established only in the second half of the l9th century, the records also contain documents of the former town, district, and patrimonial courts (Stadtgerichten, Kreisgerichten, Patrimonialgerichten). Material for our studies can be found mostly in court registers (Amtsbucher) and land registers (Grundbucher und Grundakten). Essential for particular events and facts may be the entries of all litigious and clear cases (frewillige Gerichtsbarkeit) in court registers. In the Archives in Olsztyn the above form a homogenous archival collection, arranged after a homogenous system. Unforturnately, the land registers, acts, and tables (Grundbuchtamt), which are fundamental for genealogical studies, are recorded under the name of the property's last owner. The archival material is also abundant. The search requires precision and is time-consuming.



The records of the Church administration (Kirchliche Verwaltung), both Protestant and Catholic. The Protestant Church, recognizing its role as that of the state church, preferred the state administration to supervise its archives. Before l874 the Catholic and Protestant churches functioned as a registrar. It was in l874 that under Bismarck's "struggle for culture" the registrar's role was taken over by the state. Let us note that the archives of the Church administration of East Prussia have hardly been preserved. Contrary wise, the files of the Church administration in the Kingdom of Poland are far more numerous, this being justified by the fact that the Church played the role of a registrar. Moreover, the above files have never been evacuated from the country.

As the result of its evacuation a considerable part of the archives of the Church administration of East Prussia can be found in the Diocesan Archives in Regensburg (Germany), the Evangelical Archives in Berlin (Archiv der Evangelischen Kirche der Union), and the Central State Archives in Potsdam (Zentralles Staatsarchiv, Potsdam, Germany).

The above files are hardly to be found in the Archives in Olsztyn. ?



The records of the Cadastral Offices (Katasteramter) served to delimit the real estates of particular persons and to classify grounds for the state fiscal administration. In the archives of Olsztyn the records form a united set, essential for genealogical research for it supplements land books, acts, and tables.



The records of private administration, particularly of the gentry families and aristocracy. They are also grouped together and comprise the records of the Schwerins, Dohns, Denhofs, Lehndorf-Mgowskis, Domhardts.



The presidium of Police in Poznan (Polizei Presidium) which officially since l903 and unofficially much earlier exercized the administrative and police control over the population of East Prussia. The police files complete the records of the Chief President of the Poznan Province (Oberprasidium der Provinz Posen), kept in the Poznan Archives as well. The Chief Presidents of the Poznan Province paid attention to the policy political movement in Great Poland.

The above characteristics of the accessible archival collections accounts for incomplete biographical and genealogical data (precise dates of birth, marriage or death are rare, with merely the year presented in the tables)."

The search of other archival materials concerning the Salzburg emigrants gave no results. This concerns mostly Emporunge-und Emigrations- Acta; Gustaw Rohrer's deposit kept in Gdansk (Stadt Danzig 300 Abt. R. l2) before World War II; the whole of the deposit Gumbinner Salzburger Anstalt; the records of Regierung Gumbinnen l9ll Abt no. 7, 7a, l4, l6, 20; the deposit of Tilsit and Königsberg.

The parish records of main settlement areas of the Salzburg emigrants in East Prussia have probably been lost.


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